Bone formation during forelimb regeneration: A microtomography (microCT) analysis

Stuart R. Stock, David Blackburn, Michael Gradassi, Hans Georg Simon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


In our study of bone regeneration in the forelimbs of mature newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), we used noninvasive X-ray microtomography (microCT) to image regenerating limbs from 37 to 85 days and matching (contralateral) controls. We compared the patterns of regenerated and existing (nonregenerated) bone, investigating in particular the onset of mineralization of specific bones, the level of mineral present, and the lengths of the different bones. Overall, we find that the missing limb skeletal elements are restored in a proximal-to-distal direction, which reiterates the developmental patterning program. However, in contrast to this proximal-distal sequence, the portion of the humerus distal to the amputation site fails to ossify in synchrony with the regenerating radius and ulna. This finding suggests that the replacement of cartilage with mineralized bone close to the amputation site is delayed with respect to other regenerating skeletal elements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-417
Number of pages8
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Bone formation
  • Limb regeneration
  • MicroCT
  • Newt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology


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