A number of malignant diseases are responsive to supralethal myelotoxic high-dose chemoradiotherapy, and can be treated with hematopoietic stem cell rescue. The number of genetic diseases correctable by replacement of defective pluripotent stem cells with normal stem cells or through gene transfer is ever-increasing. In all these cases, pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells need to be infused, which can be obtained directly from the bone marrow or from the peripheral blood with or without the aid of mobilizing strategies. This article is a detailed review of the technical and medical aspects of stem cell collection from the bone marrow and the peripheral blood.
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