Bone marrow niche-inspired, multiphase expansion of megakaryocytic progenitors with high polyploidization potential

Swapna Panuganti, Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis, William M. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background aims. Megakaryopoiesis encompasses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) commitment to the megakaryocytic cell (Mk) lineage, expansion of Mk progenitors and mature Mks, polyploidization and platelet release. pH and pO2 increase from the endosteum to sinuses, and different cytokines are important for various stages of differentiation. We hypothesized that mimicking the changing conditions during Mk differentiation in the bone marrow would facilitate expansion of progenitors that could generate many high-ploidy Mks. Methods. CD34- HSPCs were cultured at pH 7.2 and 5% O2 with stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (Tpo) and all combinations of Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11 and Flt-3 ligand to promote Mk progenitor expansion. Cells cultured with selected cytokines were shifted to pH 7.4 and 20% O2 to generate mature Mks, and treated with nicotinamide (NIC) to enhance polyploidization. Results. Using Tpo SCF IL-3 IL-11, we obtained 3.5 CD34 - CD41- Mk progenitors per input HSPC, while increasing purity from 1% to 17%. Cytokine cocktails with IL-3 yielded more progenitors and mature Mks, although the purities were lower. Mk production was much greater at higher pH and pO2. Although fewer progenitors were present, shifting to 20% O2/pH 7.4 at day 5 (versus days 7 or 9) yielded the greatest mature Mk production, 14 per input HSPC. NIC more than doubled the percentage of high-ploidy Mks to 40%. Conclusions. We obtained extensive Mk progenitor expansion, while ensuring that the progenitors could produce high-ploidy Mks. We anticipate that subsequent optimization of cytokines for mature Mk production and delayed NIC addition will greatly increase high-ploidy Mk production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)767-782
Number of pages16
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 2010


  • Hematopoietic stem cells
  • Megakaryocyte progenitor cells
  • Megakaryocytic cells
  • Nicotinamide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Transplantation
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Cell Biology
  • Immunology


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