Borophene synthesis beyond the single-atomic-layer limit

Xiaolong Liu, Qiucheng Li, Qiyuan Ruan, Matthew S. Rahn, Boris I. Yakobson*, Mark C. Hersam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations


Synthetic two-dimensional (2D) materials have no bulk counterparts and typically exist as single atomic layers due to substrate-stabilized growth. Multilayer formation, although broadly sought for structure and property tuning, has not yet been achieved in the case of synthetic 2D boron: that is, borophene1,2. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the synthesis of an atomically well-defined borophene polymorph beyond the single-atomic-layer (SL) limit. The structure of this bilayer (BL) borophene is consistent with two covalently bonded α-phase layers (termed BL-α borophene) as evidenced from bond-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy and density functional theory calculations. While the electronic density of states near the Fermi level of BL-α borophene is similar to SL borophene polymorphs, field-emission resonance spectroscopy reveals distinct interfacial charge transfer doping and a heightened local work function exceeding 5 eV. The extension of borophene polymorphs beyond the SL limit significantly expands the phase space for boron-based nanomaterials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-40
Number of pages6
JournalNature materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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