Brachytherapy involves placement of radioactive sources directly onto or into target tissues. The origins of brachytherapy are dermatological and date back to the discovery of radium. Although brachytherapy fell out of favor as a modality for the treatment of skin lesions by the mid-1940s, it still serves as an important alternative for certain nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in selected patients. When indicated, treatment of NMSCs with brachytherapy produces low recurrence rates and good functional and cosmetic results, especially for small, superficial lesions. This chapter reviews the historical use of brachytherapy in dermatology, technical aspects of administration, and current use of brachytherapy in the treatment of NMSCs, including efficacy, cosmesis, and adverse effects.
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