Purpose Dabrafenib and trametinib are approved for the management of advanced non- small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that harbor BRAF V600E mutations. Small series and pan-cancer analyses have identified non-V600 alterations as therapeutic targets. We sought to examine a large genomic data set to comprehensively characterize non-V600 BRAF alterations in lung cancer. Patients and Methods A total of 23,396 patients with lung cancer provided data to assay with comprehensive genomic profiling. Data were reviewed for predicted pathogenic BRAF base substitutions, short insertions and deletions, copy number changes, and rearrangements. Results Adenocarcinomas represented 65% of the occurrences; NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS), 15%; squamous cell carcinoma, 12%; and small-cell lung carcinoma, 5%. BRAF was altered in 4.5% (1,048 of 23,396) of all tumors; 37.4% (n = 397) were BRAF V600E, 38% were BRAF non-V600E activating mutations, and 18% were BRAF inactivating. Rearrangements were observed at a frequency of 4.3% and consisted of N-terminal deletions (NTDs; 0.75%), kinase domain duplications (KDDs; 0.75%), and BRAF fusions (2.8%). The fusions involved three recurrent fusion partners: ARMC10, DOCK4, and TRIM24. BRAF V600E was associated with co-occurrence of SETD2 alterations, but other BRAF alterations were not and were instead associated with CDKN2A, TP53, and STK11 alterations (P < .05). Potential mechanisms of acquired resistance to BRAF V600E inhibition are demonstrated. Conclusion This series characterized the frequent occurrence (4.4%) of BRAF alterations in lung cancers. Recurrent BRAF alterations in NSCLC adenocarcinoma are comparable to the frequency of other NSCLC oncogenic drivers, such as ALK, and exceed that of ROS1 or RET. This work supports a broad profiling approach in lung cancers and suggests that non-V600E BRAF alterations represent a subgroup of lung cancers in which targeted therapy should be considered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research