Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes

A lesion-mapping study

Irene Cristofori, Wanting Zhong, Valerie Mandoske, Aileen Chau, Frank Krueger, Maren Strenziok, Jordan Henry Grafman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increased aggression is common after traumatic brain injuries and may persist after cognitive recovery. Maladaptive aggression and violence are associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal and temporal cortex, but such dysfunctional behaviors are typically measured by explicit scales and history. However, it is well known that answers on explicit scales on sensitive topics—such as aggressive thoughts and behaviors—may not reveal true tendencies. Here, we investigated the neural basis of implicit attitudes toward aggression in humans using a modified version of the Implicit Association Task (IAT) with a unique sample of 112 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating brain injury and 33 healthy controls who also served in combat in Vietnam but had no history of brain injury. We hypothesized that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions, due to the crucial role of the dlPFC in response inhibition, could influence performance on the IAT. In addition, we investigated the causal contribution of specific brain areas to implicit attitudes toward violence. Wefound amorepositive implicit attitude toward aggressionamongindividuals with lesions to the dlPFC and inferior posterior temporal cortex (ipTC). Furthermore, executive functions were critically involved in regulating implicit attitudes toward violence and aggression. Our findings complement existing evidence on the neural basis of explicit aggression centered on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight that dlPFC and ipTC play a causal role in modulating implicit attitudes about violence and are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of aggressive behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2757-2768
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume36
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2 2016

Fingerprint

Prefrontal Cortex
Aggression
Violence
Brain
Temporal Lobe
Vietnam
Penetrating Head Injuries
Executive Function
Veterans
Brain Injuries
History

Keywords

  • Aggression
  • Implicit attitudes
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Cristofori, Irene ; Zhong, Wanting ; Mandoske, Valerie ; Chau, Aileen ; Krueger, Frank ; Strenziok, Maren ; Grafman, Jordan Henry. / Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes : A lesion-mapping study. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2016 ; Vol. 36, No. 9. pp. 2757-2768.
@article{34eac6770bee4d4fbc319dd21a5d42e0,
title = "Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes: A lesion-mapping study",
abstract = "Increased aggression is common after traumatic brain injuries and may persist after cognitive recovery. Maladaptive aggression and violence are associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal and temporal cortex, but such dysfunctional behaviors are typically measured by explicit scales and history. However, it is well known that answers on explicit scales on sensitive topics—such as aggressive thoughts and behaviors—may not reveal true tendencies. Here, we investigated the neural basis of implicit attitudes toward aggression in humans using a modified version of the Implicit Association Task (IAT) with a unique sample of 112 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating brain injury and 33 healthy controls who also served in combat in Vietnam but had no history of brain injury. We hypothesized that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions, due to the crucial role of the dlPFC in response inhibition, could influence performance on the IAT. In addition, we investigated the causal contribution of specific brain areas to implicit attitudes toward violence. Wefound amorepositive implicit attitude toward aggressionamongindividuals with lesions to the dlPFC and inferior posterior temporal cortex (ipTC). Furthermore, executive functions were critically involved in regulating implicit attitudes toward violence and aggression. Our findings complement existing evidence on the neural basis of explicit aggression centered on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight that dlPFC and ipTC play a causal role in modulating implicit attitudes about violence and are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of aggressive behavior.",
keywords = "Aggression, Implicit attitudes, Traumatic brain injury",
author = "Irene Cristofori and Wanting Zhong and Valerie Mandoske and Aileen Chau and Frank Krueger and Maren Strenziok and Grafman, {Jordan Henry}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2975-15.2016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "36",
pages = "2757--2768",
journal = "Journal of Neuroscience",
issn = "0270-6474",
publisher = "Society for Neuroscience",
number = "9",

}

Cristofori, I, Zhong, W, Mandoske, V, Chau, A, Krueger, F, Strenziok, M & Grafman, JH 2016, 'Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes: A lesion-mapping study', Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2757-2768. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2975-15.2016

Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes : A lesion-mapping study. / Cristofori, Irene; Zhong, Wanting; Mandoske, Valerie; Chau, Aileen; Krueger, Frank; Strenziok, Maren; Grafman, Jordan Henry.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 36, No. 9, 02.03.2016, p. 2757-2768.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes

T2 - A lesion-mapping study

AU - Cristofori, Irene

AU - Zhong, Wanting

AU - Mandoske, Valerie

AU - Chau, Aileen

AU - Krueger, Frank

AU - Strenziok, Maren

AU - Grafman, Jordan Henry

PY - 2016/3/2

Y1 - 2016/3/2

N2 - Increased aggression is common after traumatic brain injuries and may persist after cognitive recovery. Maladaptive aggression and violence are associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal and temporal cortex, but such dysfunctional behaviors are typically measured by explicit scales and history. However, it is well known that answers on explicit scales on sensitive topics—such as aggressive thoughts and behaviors—may not reveal true tendencies. Here, we investigated the neural basis of implicit attitudes toward aggression in humans using a modified version of the Implicit Association Task (IAT) with a unique sample of 112 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating brain injury and 33 healthy controls who also served in combat in Vietnam but had no history of brain injury. We hypothesized that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions, due to the crucial role of the dlPFC in response inhibition, could influence performance on the IAT. In addition, we investigated the causal contribution of specific brain areas to implicit attitudes toward violence. Wefound amorepositive implicit attitude toward aggressionamongindividuals with lesions to the dlPFC and inferior posterior temporal cortex (ipTC). Furthermore, executive functions were critically involved in regulating implicit attitudes toward violence and aggression. Our findings complement existing evidence on the neural basis of explicit aggression centered on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight that dlPFC and ipTC play a causal role in modulating implicit attitudes about violence and are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of aggressive behavior.

AB - Increased aggression is common after traumatic brain injuries and may persist after cognitive recovery. Maladaptive aggression and violence are associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal and temporal cortex, but such dysfunctional behaviors are typically measured by explicit scales and history. However, it is well known that answers on explicit scales on sensitive topics—such as aggressive thoughts and behaviors—may not reveal true tendencies. Here, we investigated the neural basis of implicit attitudes toward aggression in humans using a modified version of the Implicit Association Task (IAT) with a unique sample of 112 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating brain injury and 33 healthy controls who also served in combat in Vietnam but had no history of brain injury. We hypothesized that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions, due to the crucial role of the dlPFC in response inhibition, could influence performance on the IAT. In addition, we investigated the causal contribution of specific brain areas to implicit attitudes toward violence. Wefound amorepositive implicit attitude toward aggressionamongindividuals with lesions to the dlPFC and inferior posterior temporal cortex (ipTC). Furthermore, executive functions were critically involved in regulating implicit attitudes toward violence and aggression. Our findings complement existing evidence on the neural basis of explicit aggression centered on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight that dlPFC and ipTC play a causal role in modulating implicit attitudes about violence and are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of aggressive behavior.

KW - Aggression

KW - Implicit attitudes

KW - Traumatic brain injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84959558579&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84959558579&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2975-15.2016

DO - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2975-15.2016

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 2757

EP - 2768

JO - Journal of Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Neuroscience

SN - 0270-6474

IS - 9

ER -

Cristofori I, Zhong W, Mandoske V, Chau A, Krueger F, Strenziok M et al. Brain regions influencing implicit violent attitudes: A lesion-mapping study. Journal of Neuroscience. 2016 Mar 2;36(9):2757-2768. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2975-15.2016