Breast cancer and immunology: Biomarker and therapeutic developments

Cesar A. Santa-Maria*, Sue Jung Park, Sarika Jain, William J. Gradishar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


While breast cancer has not historically been considered an immunogenic cancer, recent data demonstrating the powerful anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoints in many cancers, including breast cancer, has reinvigorated the field. Although the responses are generally low with single agents, some patients experience disease control for a long period of time. Selecting appropriate patients for immunotherapy is an important area of research, and many biomarkers are under investigation. Although immunotherapies are still in their early stages of development, learning how to use them in combination with other agents that can alter antigen presentation or other immune elements will be crucial. This review aims to summarize efforts in immune-related biomarker and drug development, particularly as it pertains to breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1215-1222
Number of pages8
JournalExpert review of anticancer therapy
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 3 2015


  • biomarkers
  • breast cancer
  • checkpoint inhibitors
  • drug development
  • immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Oncology


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