Bridging length scales in organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors through internal strain and mesoscale dynamics

Ruiheng Wu, Dilara Meli, Joseph Strzalka, Suresh Narayanan, Qingteng Zhang, Bryan D. Paulsen, Jonathan Rivnay*, Christopher J. Takacs*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding the structural and dynamic properties of disordered systems at the mesoscale is crucial. This is particularly important in organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs), which undergo significant and complex structural changes when operated in an electrolyte. In this study, we investigate the mesoscale strain, reversibility and dynamics of a model OMIEC material under external electrochemical potential using operando X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Our results reveal that strain and structural hysteresis depend on the sample’s cycling history, establishing a comprehensive kinetic sequence bridging the macroscopic and microscopic behaviours of OMIECs. Furthermore, we uncover the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of charge carriers and material-doping states, highlighting the unexpected coupling between charge carrier dynamics and mesoscale order. These findings advance our understanding of the structure–dynamics–function relationships in OMIECs, opening pathways for designing and engineering materials with improved performance and functionality in non-equilibrium states during device operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)648-655
Number of pages8
JournalNature materials
Issue number5
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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