Broad Applicability of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to the Measurement of Oxygen Nonstoichiometry in Mixed Ion and Electron Conductors

Ruiyun Huang, Connor G. Carr, Chirranjeevi Balaji Gopal, Sossina M. Haile*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Oxygen nonstoichiometry is a fundamental feature of mixed ion and electron conductors (MIECs). In this work, a general electrochemical method for determining nonstoichiometry in thin film MIECs, via measurement of the chemical capacitance, is demonstrated using ceria and ceria-zirconia (Ce0.8Zr0.2O2-δ) as representative materials. A.C. impedance data are collected from both materials at high temperature (750-900 °C) under reducing conditions with oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in the range 10-13to 10-20atm. Additional measurements of ceria-zirconia films are made under relatively oxidizing conditions with pO2in the range 0.2 to 10-4atm and temperatures of 800-900 °C. Under reducing conditions, the impedance spectra are described by a simple circuit in which a resistor is in series with a resistor and capacitor in parallel, and thickness-dependent measurements are used to resolve the capacitance into interfacial and chemical terms. Under more oxidizing conditions, the impedance spectra (of Ce0.8Zr0.2O2-δ) reveal an additional diffusional feature, which enables determination of the ionic resistance of the film in addition to the capacitance, and hence the transport properties. A generalized mathematical formalism is presented for recovering the nonstoichiometry from the chemical capacitance, without recourse to defect chemical models. The ceria nonstoichiometry values are in good agreement with literature values determined by thermogravimetric measurements but display considerably less scatter and are collected on considerably shorter time scales. The thermodynamic analysis of Ce0.8Zr0.2O2-δcorroborates earlier findings that introduction of Zr into ceria enhances its reducibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19629-19643
Number of pages15
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume14
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2022

Keywords

  • ceria
  • ceria-zirconia
  • chemical capacitance
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • ionic conductivity
  • mixed ion and electron conductor (MIEC)
  • oxygen nonstoichiometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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