Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and predicts bacterial pneumonia

Curtis H. Weiss*, Farzad Moazed, David Dibardino, Mamta Swaroop, Richard G Wunderink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract leads to a spectrum of disorders with high morbidity. Aspiration is a diagnostic dilemma, because clinical characteristics and diagnostic tests are not effective predicting or confirming aspiration. We sought to determine whether α-amylase, a protein secreted by salivary glands and the pancreas, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in patients with clinical risk factors for aspiration and whether bronchoalveolar lavage amylase predicts bacterial pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Five adult ICUs at a tertiary care urban medical center. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent either bronchoscopic or nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage within 72 hrs of endotracheal intubation between August 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 296 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase results from 280 patients were included in the analysis, and 155 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase specimens were obtained from patients with at least one predefined preintubation risk factor (altered consciousness, swallowing dysfunction, difficult intubation, peri-intubation vomiting, or cardiac arrest). Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase concentration increased as the number of preintubation risk factors increased (p < 0.001). In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase was elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (cfu/mL ≥ 10) (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage amylase to differentiate between positive and negative bronchoalveolar lavage culture was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.75). The lower 95% confidence interval for bronchoalveolar lavage amylase in patients with at least one preintubation risk factor for aspiration was 125.9 units/L. In multivariate analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase < 125 units/L was associated with significantly lower odds of bacterial pneumonia (odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.71, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and may predict bacterial pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase may be useful as an early screening tool to guide management of patients suspected of aspiration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-773
Number of pages9
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013

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Bacterial Pneumonia
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Amylases
Confidence Intervals
Intubation
Aspirations (Psychology)
Salivary Proteins and Peptides
Gastrointestinal Contents
Aptitude
Intratracheal Intubation
Tertiary Healthcare
Deglutition
Heart Arrest
Consciousness
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Respiratory System
Vomiting
Pancreas

Keywords

  • Á-amylase
  • Aspiration
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

@article{4a97222636a548d097ccf6f28870f9cc,
title = "Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and predicts bacterial pneumonia",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract leads to a spectrum of disorders with high morbidity. Aspiration is a diagnostic dilemma, because clinical characteristics and diagnostic tests are not effective predicting or confirming aspiration. We sought to determine whether α-amylase, a protein secreted by salivary glands and the pancreas, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in patients with clinical risk factors for aspiration and whether bronchoalveolar lavage amylase predicts bacterial pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Five adult ICUs at a tertiary care urban medical center. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent either bronchoscopic or nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage within 72 hrs of endotracheal intubation between August 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 296 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase results from 280 patients were included in the analysis, and 155 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase specimens were obtained from patients with at least one predefined preintubation risk factor (altered consciousness, swallowing dysfunction, difficult intubation, peri-intubation vomiting, or cardiac arrest). Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase concentration increased as the number of preintubation risk factors increased (p < 0.001). In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase was elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (cfu/mL ≥ 10) (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage amylase to differentiate between positive and negative bronchoalveolar lavage culture was 0.67 (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.60-0.75). The lower 95{\%} confidence interval for bronchoalveolar lavage amylase in patients with at least one preintubation risk factor for aspiration was 125.9 units/L. In multivariate analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase < 125 units/L was associated with significantly lower odds of bacterial pneumonia (odds ratio 0.39, 95{\%} confidence interval 0.21-0.71, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and may predict bacterial pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase may be useful as an early screening tool to guide management of patients suspected of aspiration.",
keywords = "{\'A}-amylase, Aspiration, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Mechanical ventilation, Pneumonia",
author = "Weiss, {Curtis H.} and Farzad Moazed and David Dibardino and Mamta Swaroop and Wunderink, {Richard G}",
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Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and predicts bacterial pneumonia. / Weiss, Curtis H.; Moazed, Farzad; Dibardino, David; Swaroop, Mamta; Wunderink, Richard G.

In: Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, 01.03.2013, p. 765-773.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and predicts bacterial pneumonia

AU - Weiss, Curtis H.

AU - Moazed, Farzad

AU - Dibardino, David

AU - Swaroop, Mamta

AU - Wunderink, Richard G

PY - 2013/3/1

Y1 - 2013/3/1

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract leads to a spectrum of disorders with high morbidity. Aspiration is a diagnostic dilemma, because clinical characteristics and diagnostic tests are not effective predicting or confirming aspiration. We sought to determine whether α-amylase, a protein secreted by salivary glands and the pancreas, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in patients with clinical risk factors for aspiration and whether bronchoalveolar lavage amylase predicts bacterial pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Five adult ICUs at a tertiary care urban medical center. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent either bronchoscopic or nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage within 72 hrs of endotracheal intubation between August 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 296 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase results from 280 patients were included in the analysis, and 155 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase specimens were obtained from patients with at least one predefined preintubation risk factor (altered consciousness, swallowing dysfunction, difficult intubation, peri-intubation vomiting, or cardiac arrest). Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase concentration increased as the number of preintubation risk factors increased (p < 0.001). In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase was elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (cfu/mL ≥ 10) (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage amylase to differentiate between positive and negative bronchoalveolar lavage culture was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.75). The lower 95% confidence interval for bronchoalveolar lavage amylase in patients with at least one preintubation risk factor for aspiration was 125.9 units/L. In multivariate analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase < 125 units/L was associated with significantly lower odds of bacterial pneumonia (odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.71, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and may predict bacterial pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase may be useful as an early screening tool to guide management of patients suspected of aspiration.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract leads to a spectrum of disorders with high morbidity. Aspiration is a diagnostic dilemma, because clinical characteristics and diagnostic tests are not effective predicting or confirming aspiration. We sought to determine whether α-amylase, a protein secreted by salivary glands and the pancreas, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in patients with clinical risk factors for aspiration and whether bronchoalveolar lavage amylase predicts bacterial pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Five adult ICUs at a tertiary care urban medical center. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent either bronchoscopic or nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage within 72 hrs of endotracheal intubation between August 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 296 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase results from 280 patients were included in the analysis, and 155 bronchoalveolar lavage amylase specimens were obtained from patients with at least one predefined preintubation risk factor (altered consciousness, swallowing dysfunction, difficult intubation, peri-intubation vomiting, or cardiac arrest). Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase concentration increased as the number of preintubation risk factors increased (p < 0.001). In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase was elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (cfu/mL ≥ 10) (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve for the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage amylase to differentiate between positive and negative bronchoalveolar lavage culture was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.75). The lower 95% confidence interval for bronchoalveolar lavage amylase in patients with at least one preintubation risk factor for aspiration was 125.9 units/L. In multivariate analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage amylase < 125 units/L was associated with significantly lower odds of bacterial pneumonia (odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.71, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage amylase is associated with risk factors for aspiration and may predict bacterial pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage amylase may be useful as an early screening tool to guide management of patients suspected of aspiration.

KW - Á-amylase

KW - Aspiration

KW - Bronchoalveolar lavage

KW - Mechanical ventilation

KW - Pneumonia

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