Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) hampers the utility of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a novel combination of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTC) and bortezomib for the prevention of GVHD. Patients undergoing peripheral blood AHSCT for hematological malignancies after reduced-intensity conditioning with grafts from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Patients received a fixed dose of PTC and an increasing dose of bortezomib in 3 cohorts, from.7 to 1 and then to 1.3 mg/m2, administered 6 hours after graft infusion and 72 hours thereafter, during phase I. The study was then extended at the higher dose in phase II for a total of 28 patients. No graft failure and no unexpected grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicities were encountered. The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 16 and 27 days, respectively. Day +100 treatment-related mortality was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI],.2% to 15.7%). The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III and IV acute GVHD were 35.9% (95% CI, 18.6% to 53.6%) and 11.7% (95% CI, 2.8% to 27.5%), respectively. The incidence of chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 11.4% to 45.3%). Progression-free survival, overall survival, and GVHD and relapse-free survival rates were 50% (95% CI, 30.6% to 66.6%), 50.8% (95% CI, 30.1% to 68.2%), and 37.7% (95% CI, 20.1% to 55.3%), respectively. Immune reconstitution, measured by CD3, CD4, and CD8 recovery, was prompt. The combination of PTC and bortezomib for the prevention of GVHD is feasible, safe, and yields promising results. The combination warrants further examination in a multi-institutional trial.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis
- Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
ASJC Scopus subject areas