Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are redirected T-cells that can recognize cancer antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent fashion. A typical CAR is comprised of two main functional domains: an extracellular antigen recognition domain, called a single-chain variable fragment (scFv), and an intracellular signaling domain. Based on the number of intracellular signaling molecules, CARs are categorized into four generations. CAR T-cell therapy has become a promising treatment for hematologic malignancies. However, results of its clinical trials on solid tumors have not been encouraging. Here, we described the structure of CARs and summarized the clinical trials of CD19-targeted CAR T-cells. The side effects, safety management, challenges, and future prospects of CAR T-cells for the treatment of cancer, particularly for solid tumors, were also discussed.
- Chimeric antigen receptor
- single-chain variable fragment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology