Introduction. Targeted therapies may impact the natural history of bladder cancer based upon their pharmacokinetics. The Her2/neu receptor tyrosine kinase, overexpressed by half of all primary urothelial carcinomas, has recently been examined as a therapeutic target in bladder cancer in a prospective phase II multicenter trial (NCI-198) that enrolled 109 patients with advanced bladder carcinomas for treatment with trastuzumab in combination with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine. We report on documented isolated Her2/neu positive carcinomatous meningitis in a patient treated with trastuzumab. Case presentation. A 61-year-old Caucasian man with metastatic bladder cancer was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab with a partial response that was followed by a complete response after surgery. He relapsed with isolated Her2/neu positive carcinomatous meningitis. Conclusion. Carcinomatous meningitis in bladder cancer is extremely rare. This is the first case reported of Her2/neu positive carcinomatous meningitis. Disease recurred solely at a sanctuary site, demonstrating that despite the systemic efficacy of trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, its inability to enter the central nervous system potentially contributes to the unusual site of disease recurrence.
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