Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in detection of progressive graft dysfunction in pediatric heart transplantation

Kae Watanabe*, Nicoleta C. Arva, Joshua D. Robinson, Cynthia Rigsby, Michael Markl, Melanie Sojka, Paul Tannous, Jennifer Arzu, Nazia Husain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Chronic graft failure (CGF) in pediatric heart transplant (PHT) is multifactorial and may present with findings of fibrosis and microvessel disease (MVD) on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). There is no optimal CGF surveillance method. We evaluated associations between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and historical/EMB correlates of CGF to assess CMR's utility as a surveillance method. Methods: Retrospective analysis of PHT undergoing comprehensive CMR between September 2015 and January 2022 was performed. EMB within 6 months was graded for fibrosis (scale 0–5) and MVD (number of capillaries with stenotic wall thickening per field of view). Correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Forty-seven PHT with median age at CMR of 15.7 years (11.6, 19.3) and time from transplant of 6.4 years (4.1, 11.0) were studied. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) was present in 11/44 (22.0%) and historical rejection in 14/41 (34.2%). CAV was associated with higher global T2 (49.0 vs. 47.0 ms; p = 0.038) and peak T2 (57.0 vs. 53.0 ms; p = 0.013) on CMR. Historical rejection was associated with higher global T2 (49.0 vs. 47.0 ms; p = 0.007) and peak T2 (57.0 vs. 53.0 ms; p = 0.03) as well as global extracellular volume (31.0 vs. 26.3%; p = 0.03). Higher fibrosis score on EMB correlated with smaller indexed left ventricular mass (rho = −0.34; p = 0.019) and greater degree of MVD with lower indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (rho = −0.35; p = 0.017). Conclusion: Adverse ventricular remodeling and abnormal myocardial characteristics on CMR are present in PHT with CAV, historical rejection, as well as greater fibrosis and MVD on EMB. CMR has the potential use for screening of CGF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14652
JournalPediatric transplantation
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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