Cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of human GTP cyclohydrolase I protects against acute cardiac allograft rejection

Irina A. Ionova, Jeannette Vásquez-Vivar, Brian C. Cooley, Ashwani K. Khanna, Jennifer Whitsett, Anja Herrnreiter, Raymond Q. Migrino, Zhi-Dong Ge, Kevin R. Regner, Keith M. Channon, Nicholas J. Alp, Galen M. Pieper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis. Decreases in GTPCH activity and expression have been shown in late stages of acute cardiac rejection, suggesting a deficit in BH4. We hypothesized that increasing intracellular levels of BH4 by cardiac myocyte-targeted overexpression of GTPCH would diminish acute cardiac allograft rejection. Transgenic mice overexpressing GTPCH in the heart were generated and crossed on C57BL6 background. Wild-type and transgenic mouse donor hearts were transplanted into BALB/c recipient mice. Left ventricular (LV) function, histological rejection, BH4 levels, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression (mRNA) were examined. Expression of human GTPCH was documented by PCR, Western analysis, and function by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in cardiac BH4 levels. GTPCH transgene decreased histological rejection (46%; P < 0.003) and cardiac myocyte injury (eosin autofluorescence; 56%; P < 0.0001) independent of changes in inflammatory cytokine expression or nitric oxide content. GTPCH transgene decreased IL-2 (88%; P < 0.002), IL-1R2 (42%; P < 0.0001), and programmed cell death-1 (67%; P < 0.0001) expression, whereas it increased fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (156%; P < 0.0001) and stromal-derived factor-1 (2; 190%; P < 0.0001) expression. There was no difference in ejection fraction or fractional shortening; however, LV mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) only in wild-type grafts. The decreases in LV mass, cardiac injury, and histological rejection support a protective role of cardiac GTPCH overexpression and increased BH4 synthesis in cardiac allografts. The mechanism of the decreased rejection appears related to decreased T cell proliferation and modulation of immune function by higher expression of genes involved in hematopoietic/ stromal cell development and recruitment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H88-H96
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2010


  • Guanosine 5′-triphosphate cyclohydrolase
  • Left ventricular mass
  • Rejection
  • Stromal-derived factor 1
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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