Cardiac Structural and Functional Remodeling After Transcatheter Mitral Valve in Valve Implantation: Early Changes and Prognostic Significance

Gloria Ayuba*, Zhiying Meng, Abigail S. Baldridge, Ansh Goyal, Blair Tilkens, Rishi Shrivastav, Taimur Safder, Chris S. Malaisrie, James Flaherty, Patrick M. McCarthy, James D. Thomas, Charles Davidson, Jyothy Puthumana, Akhil Narang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve (MViV) replacement has emerged as an alternative to redo mitral valve (MV) surgery for the management of failed bioprosthetic MVs. The degree of cardiac remodeling assessed by echocardiography has been shown to have prognostic implications in degenerative mitral regurgitation patients undergoing MV surgery. The impact of transcatheter MViV in patients with degenerative bioprosthetic MV failure on cardiac remodeling and its associated prognosis remains undescribed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe the early anatomic and functional changes of the left-sided chambers and right ventricle by echocardiography posttranscatheter MViV intervention and their impact on mortality outcomes. Additionally, we sought to analyze the outcome of heart failure in bioprosthetic MV failure patients undergoing transcatheter MViV replacement. Methods: We analyzed consecutive patients undergoing MViV intervention for symptomatic bioprosthetic MV failure. Echocardiograms before intervention and within 100 days postintervention were analyzed. A chart review was performed to obtain baseline characteristics, follow-up visits, 30-day heart failure and 1-year all-cause mortality outcomes. Results: A total of 62 patients (mean age 69 ± 13 years, 61% male) were included in the study. Most patients were undergoing MViV intervention for prosthetic mitral stenosis n = 48 (77.4%) and the rest for mitral regurgitation or mixed disease. Compared with baseline, significant reductions were observed in median left atrial volume (LAV; 103 [81–129] ml vs. 95.2 [74.5–117.5] ml, p < 0.01) and mean (SD) left atrial conduit strain (9.1% ± 5.2% vs. 10.8% ± 4.8%, p = 0.039) within 100 days postintervention. Early reduction in right ventricular free wall global longitudinal strain and fractional area change also occurred postintervention. No significant change in left ventricular chamber dimensions or ejection fraction was observed. During the 1-year follow up period, 5 (8%) patients died. While baseline LAV was not associated with 1-year all-cause mortality (OR 0.98 CI 0.95–1.01; p = 0.27), a change in LAV in the follow up period was associated with all-cause mortality at 1 year (OR 1.06 CI 1.01–1.12; p = 0.023). At 30 days postintervention, 65% of patients had an improvement in their New York Heart Association functional class. Conclusion: In this retrospective study of patients undergoing transcatheter MViV intervention for failed bioprosthetic MVs, early reverse remodeling of the left atrium occurs within 100 days postintervention and reduction in LAV is associated with reduced all-cause mortality at 1 year. In addition, there is significant improvement in heart failure symptoms at 30 days following intervention but further investigation into the longitudinal remodeling changes and long-term outcomes is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100264
JournalStructural Heart
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Left atrial remodeling
  • Left atrial strain
  • Prosthetic valve failure
  • Right ventricular free wall strain
  • Transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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