Objective: To assess impact of a 52-week elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on exercise capacity in Morquio A patients and analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic function during exercise to uncover exercise limitations beyond skeletal abnormalities. Methods: Morquio A patients aged ≥7 years, able to walk >200 m in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week (N = 15) or 4.0 mg/kg/week (N = 10) for 52 weeks in the randomized, double-blind MOR-008 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01609062) and its extension. Exercise capacity was assessed by 6MWT, 3-minute stair climb test (3MSCT), and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET; N = 15 dosage groups combined). Results: Changes over 52 weeks in 6MWT and 3MSCT were minimal. Baseline CPET results showed impaired weight-adjusted peak oxygen uptake (VO2), partly attributable to inability to increase tidal volume during exercise. CPET measures of exercise function showed significant improvement at 25 and/or 52 weeks in exercise duration, peak workload, O2 pulse, and peak tidal volume (% increases in duration, 16.9 (P = 0.0045) and 9.4 (P = 0.0807); peak workload, 26.5 (P = 0.0026) and 21.2 (P = 0.0132); O2 pulse, 10.7 (P = 0.0187) and 2.3 (P = 0.643); peak tidal volume, 11.7 (P = 0.1117) and 29.1 (P = 0.0142)). In addition, decreased VO2/work ratio was noted (% decrease −7.6 [−11.9, 1.3] and −9.2 [−25.7, 5.1]), indicating performance of work at reduced oxygen cost. Conclusions: CPET uncovers limitation in exercise capacity in Morquio A related to reduced lung function. ERT improves exercise capacity and efficiency of oxygen utilization, not attributable to changes in cardiac or pulmonary function. Further study of the long-term impact of ERT on exercise capacity and the clinical relevance of the observed changes is warranted.