The rigidity and relatively primitive modes of operation of catheters equipped with sensing or actuation elements impede their conformal contact with soft-tissue surfaces, limit the scope of their uses, lengthen surgical times and increase the need for advanced surgical skills. Here, we report materials, device designs and fabrication approaches for integrating advanced electronic functionality with catheters for minimally invasive forms of cardiac surgery. By using multiphysics modelling, plastic heart models and Langendorff animal and human hearts, we show that soft electronic arrays in multilayer configurations on endocardial balloon catheters can establish conformal contact with curved tissue surfaces, support high-density spatiotemporal mapping of temperature, pressure and electrophysiological parameters and allow for programmable electrical stimulation, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. Integrating multimodal and multiplexing capabilities into minimally invasive surgical instruments may improve surgical performance and patient outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications