Direct and indirect carotid cavernous sinus fistulas are uncommon vascular anomalies that result in increased pressure in the cavernous sinus. The subsequent changes in blood flow lead to orbital venous congestion, cranial neuropathies, and glaucoma. The following review summarizes knowledge of the clinical features, natural history, diagnostic testing, and therapy for carotid cavernous sinus fistulas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology