Recent studies indicate that the adaptive immune system plays a role in Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the mechanism regulating T cell brain homing in LBD is unknown. Here, we observed T cells adjacent to Lewy bodies and dopaminergic neurons in postmortem LBD brains. Single-cell RNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified up-regulated expression of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in CD4+ T cells in LBD. CSF protein levels of the CXCR4 ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), were associated with neuroaxonal damage in LBD. Furthermore, we observed clonal expansion and up-regulated interleukin 17A expression by CD4+ T cells stimulated with a phosphorylated a-synuclein epitope. Thus, CXCR4-CXCL12 signaling may represent a mechanistic target for inhibiting pathological interleukin-17-producing T cell trafficking in LBD.
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