Infections by low-risk papillomavirus types, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-11, induce benign genital warts that rarely progress to malignancy. In contrast, lesions induced by high-risk HPV types have the potential to progress to cancer. Considerable information is available concerning the pathogenesis of high-risk HPV types, but little is known about the life cycle of low-risk HPV types. Although functionally distinct, both high- and low-risk virus types infect keratinocytes and induce virion production upon differentiation. This information suggests that they may share common mechanisms for regulating their productive life cycles. Using tissue culture methods developed to study high-risk HPV types, we examined the ability of HPV-11 to be stably maintained as episomes following transfection of normal human keratinocytes with cloned viral DNA. HPV-11 genomes were found to be maintained in keratinocytes for extended passages in cultures in 14 independent experiments involving transfection of cloned HPV-11 DNA. Interestingly, the HPV-11-positive cells exhibited an extended life span that averaged approximately twofold longer than that of control neomycin-transfected cells. In organotypic cultures, HPV-11-positive cells exhibited altered differentiation patterns, but the extent of disruption was less severe than that seen with high-risk HPV types. In addition, the amplification of HPV-11 DNA, as well as the induction of several viral messages, was observed following differentiation of transfected cells in semisolid media. To determine whether global changes in cellular gene expression induced by HPV-11 were similar to those observed with high-risk HPV-31 (Y. E. Chang and L. A. Laimins, J. Virol. 74:4174-4182, 2000), microarray analysis of 7,075 expressed sequences was performed. A spectrum of cellular genes different from that previously reported for HPV-31 was found to be activated or repressed by HPV-11. The expression of only a small set of genes was similarly altered by both high- and low-risk HPV types. This result suggests that different classes of HPVs have distinct effects on global cellular transcription patterns during infection. The methods described allow for a genetic analysis of HPV-11 in the context of its differentiation-dependent life cycle.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science