Cellular Immunity Is Critical for Assessing COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness in Immunocompromised Individuals

Eustache Paramithiotis, Scott Sugden, Eszter Papp, Marie Bonhomme, Todd Chermak, Stephanie Y. Crawford, Stefanie Z. Demetriades, Gerson Galdos, Bruce L. Lambert, John Mattison, Thomas McDade, Stephane Pillet, Robert Murphy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


COVID-19 vaccine clinical development was conducted with unprecedented speed. Immunity measurements were concentrated on the antibody response which left significant gaps in our understanding how robust and long-lasting immune protection develops. Better understanding the cellular immune response will fill those gaps, especially in the elderly and immunocompromised populations which not only have the highest risk for severe infection, but also frequently have inadequate antibody responses. Although cellular immunity measurements are more logistically complex to conduct for clinical trials compared to antibody measurements, the feasibility and benefit of doing them in clinical trials has been demonstrated and so should be more widely adopted. Adding significant cellular response metrics will provide a deeper understanding of the overall immune response to COVID-19 vaccination, which will significantly inform vaccination strategies for the most vulnerable populations. Better monitoring of overall immunity will also substantially benefit other vaccine development efforts, and indeed any therapies that involve the immune system as part of the therapeutic strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number880784
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - May 26 2022


  • COVID-19
  • cellular immunity
  • efficacy
  • immunocompromised
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Cellular Immunity Is Critical for Assessing COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness in Immunocompromised Individuals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this