BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with stroke and other adverse outcomes. Large and small arterial stenosis is prevalent in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We hypothesize that large and/or small vessel cerebral arterial disease is associated with impaired cerebral autoregulation during CPB. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of data from 346 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB enrolled in an ongoing prospectively randomized clinical trial of autoregulation monitoring were evaluated. The study protocol included preoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) evaluation of major cerebral artery flow velocity by a trained vascular technician and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between postoperative days 3 and 5. Brain MRI images were evaluated for chronic white matter hyperintensities (WMHI) by a vascular neurologist blinded to autoregulation data. "Large vessel" cerebral vascular disease was defined by the presence of characteristic TCD changes associated with stenosis of the major cerebral arteries. "Small vessel" cerebral vascular disease was defined based on accepted scoring methods of WMHI. All patients had continuous TCD-based autoregulation monitoring during surgery. RESULTS: Impaired autoregulation occurred in 32.4% (112/346) of patients. Preoperative TCD demonstrated moderate-severe large vessel stenosis in 67 (25.2%) of 266 patients with complete data. In adjusted analysis, female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.86; P =.014) and higher average temperature during CPB (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.475; P =.029), but not moderate-severe large cerebral arterial stenosis (P =.406), were associated with impaired autoregulation during CPB. Of the 119 patients with available brain MRI data, 42 (35.3%) demonstrated WMHI. The presence of small vessel cerebral vascular disease was associated with impaired CBF autoregulation (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.21-8.71; P =.019) after adjustment for age, history of peripheral vascular disease, preoperative hemoglobin level, and preoperative treatment with calcium channel blocking drugs. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that impaired CBF autoregulation is prevalent during CPB predisposing affected patients to brain hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion with low or high blood pressure, respectively. Small vessel, but not large vessel, cerebral vascular disease, male sex, and higher average body temperature during CPB appear to be associated with impaired autoregulation.
- Gut microbiome
- Gut microbiota
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine