Challenges in measurement of spasticity in neurological disorders

Marta Pajaro-Blázquez*, Pawel Maciejasz, John McCamley, Ivan Collantes-Vallar, Dorin Copaci, William Zev Rymer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Current challenges in the upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS) management include identifying and establishing correct strategies to evaluate spasticity in clinical and research settings. There are a number of measures frequently used in a clinical environment. They are mainly qualitative tools that range from questionnaires to scales that are practical but imprecise. Alternative, quantitative measures that provide an accurate evaluation of spasticity are currently available for use, however they require specialist training and equipment. The advantage of quantitative assessments is that they can also differentiate between different components of spasticity and their contribution in the symptomatology. However, the use of these precise tools requires a longer time than is usually available in clinical practice. This chapter presents an overview of the different methods that exist to evaluate spasticity and proposes different management strategies. There is still a need to converge the efforts of researchers in different fields to develop accurate practical tools and algorithms that allow for precise evaluations in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBiosystems and Biorobotics
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages29
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Publication series

NameBiosystems and Biorobotics
ISSN (Print)2195-3562
ISSN (Electronic)2195-3570


  • Evaluation
  • Quantitative measurement
  • Spasticity
  • Upper motor neuron syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


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