Chandra observations of the collisional ring galaxy NGC 922

A. H. Prestwich*, J. L. Galache, T. Linden, V. Kalogera, A. Zezas, T. P. Roberts, R. Kilgard, A. Wolter, G. Trinchieri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


In this paper, we report on Chandra observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 922. NGC 922 is a drop-through ring galaxy with an expanding ring of star formation, similar in many respects to the Cartwheel galaxy. The Cartwheel galaxy is famous for hosting 12 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), most of which are in the star-forming ring. This is the largest number ofULXs seen in a single system and has led to speculation that the low metallicity of the Cartwheel (0.3 Z ) may optimize the conditions forULX formation. In contrast, NGC 922 has metallicity near solar. The Chandra observations reveal a population of bright X-ray sources, including sevenULXs. The number ofULXs in NGC 922 and the Cartwheel scales with the star formation rate: we do not find any evidence for an excess of sources in the Cartwheel. Simulations of the binary population in these galaxies suggest that theULX population in both systems is dominated by systems with strong wind accretion from supergiant donors onto direct-collapse black holes. The simulations correctly predict the ratio of the number of sources in NGC 922 and the Cartwheel. Thus, it would appear that the metallicity of the Cartwheel is not low enough to see a difference in theULX population compared to NGC 922.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number150
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 10 2012


  • X-rays: galaxies
  • galaxies: individual (NGC 922)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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