Changing Ecotypes of Dengue Virus 2 Serotype in Nigeria and the Emergence of Cosmopolitan and Asian I Lineages, 1966–2019

Bernard A. Onoja*, Mamoudou Maiga, Ridwan O. Adesola, Andrew M. Adamu, Oyelola A. Adegboye*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dengue virus (DENV) is a leading mosquito-borne virus with a wide geographical spread and a major public health concern. DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and serotype 2 (DENV-2) were first reported in Africa in 1964 in Ibadan, Nigeria. Although the burden of dengue is unknown in many African countries, DENV-2 is responsible for major epidemics. In this study, we investigated the activities of DENV-2 to determine the circulating strains and to appraise the changing dynamics in the epidemiology of the virus in Nigeria. Nineteen DENV-2 sequences from 1966–2019 in Nigeria were retrieved from the GenBank of the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). A DENV genotyping tool was used to identify the specific genotypes. The evolutionary history procedure was performed on 54 DENV-2 sequences using MEGA 7. There is a deviation from Sylvatic DENV-2 to other genotypes in Nigeria. In 2019, the Asian I genotype of DENV-2 was predominant in southern Edo State, located in the tropical rainforest region, with the first report of the DENV-2 Cosmopolitan strain. We confirmed the circulation of other non-assigned genotypes of DENV-2 in Nigeria. Collectively, this shows that DENV-2 dynamics have changed from Sylvatic transmission reported in the 1960s with the identification of the Cosmopolitan strain and Asian lineages. Sustained surveillance, including vectorial studies, is required to fully establish the trend and determine the role of these vectors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number547
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • Asian I
  • Nigeria
  • cosmopolitan strain
  • dengue virus
  • ecotypes
  • sylvatic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology


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