Characterization of a delayed early serum response region

John C. Groskopf, Daniel I.H. Linzer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The proliferin (PLF) gene promoter provides a relatively simple model system for the study of growth-regulated gene expression in mouse cells. The promoter elements required for this serum-induced regulation have been identified and include an AP-1 site as well as an adjacent element comprised of three imperfect repeats that are similar in sequence to the simian virus 40 (SV40) Sph motif. Distinct protein complexes bound independently to the AP-1 and Sph elements, and both of these juxtaposed sites could be occupied simultaneously. Furthermore, serum stimulation of mouse fibroblasts resulted in similar increases in protein binding to the AP-1 and Sph elements. Consistent with this increase in AP-1 and Sph binding activity, the PLF AP-1 and Sph elements were independently able to confer serum responsiveness to a minimal promoter, and together these two elements acted synergistically in response to serum. Although several members of the AP-1 family were able to activate the PLF gene promoter in transient cotransfection experiments, the predominant AP-1 components interacting with the PLF gene promoter in serum- stimulated cells were Fra-1, JunB, and JunD. Analysis of the Sph element revealed that mutation of Sph repeats I or III abolished serum responsiveness of the PLF gene promoter, and mutation of Sph repeat III decreased protein binding to this element. Although the Sph element is similar in sequence to the SV40 element, the PLF Sph-binding factor is distinct from TEF-1, the factor that binds to the SV40 Sph motif.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6013-6020
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular and cellular biology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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