Characterization of dual agonists for kinin B1 and B2 receptors and their biased activation of B2 receptors

Xianming Zhang, Jessica L. Lowry, Viktor Brovkovych, Randal A. Skidgel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Kinin B1 and B2 receptors (kB1R and kB2R) play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In some cases, kB1R or kB2R activation can have overlapping or complementary beneficial effects, thus an activator of both receptors might be advantageous. We found that replacement of the C-terminal Arg in the natural kB2R activators bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (KD) with Lys (K9-BK or K10-KD) resulted in agonists that effectively stimulate the downstream signaling of both the kB1R and kB2R as measured by increased inositol turnover, intracellular calcium, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, arachidonic acid release and NO production. However, K9-BK and K10-KD displayed some characteristics of biased agonism for kB2Rs as indicated by the rapid kinetics of ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by K9-BK or K10-KD compared with the prolonged response mediated by BK or KD. In contrast, kinetics of ERK phosphorylation stimulated by K10-KD activation of the kB1R was the same as that induced by known kB1R agonist des-Arg10-KD. Furthermore, the endocytosis of kB2Rs mediated by K9-BK and K10-KD was remarkably less than that induced by BK and KD respectively. K10-KD stimulated kB1R and kB2R-dependent calcium responses and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in bovine endothelial cells. In cytokine-treated human endothelial cells, K10-KD stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a transient peak of NO production that was primarily kB2R-dependent. K10-KD also stimulated prolonged NO production that was both kB1R and kB2R-dependent. These data provide the first examples of dual agonists of kB1R and kB2R, and a biased agonist of kB2R and may provide useful clues for developing dual modulators of kB1Rs and kB2Rs for potential therapeutic use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1619-1631
Number of pages13
JournalCellular Signalling
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2012


  • Biased agonist
  • Endocytosis
  • G protein-coupled receptors
  • Kinin B1 receptor
  • Kinin B2 receptor
  • Kinin peptides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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