Charged particle tracking in real-time using a full-mesh data delivery architecture and associative memory techniques

Sudha Ajuha, Ailton Akira Shinoda, Lucas Arruda Ramalho, Guillaume Baulieu, Gaelle Boudoul, Massimo Casarsa, Andre Cascadan, Emyr Clement, Thiago Costa de Paiva, Souvik Das, Suchandra Dutta, Ricardo Eusebi, Giacomo Fedi, Vitor Finotti Ferreira, Kristian Hahn, Zhen Hu, Sergo Jindariani*, Jacobo Konigsberg, Tiehui Liu, Jia Fu LowEmily MacDonald, Jamieson Olsen, Fabrizio Palla, Nicola Pozzobon, Denis Rathjens, Luciano Ristori, Roberto Rossin, Kevin Sung, Nhan Tran, Marco Trovato, Keith Ulmer, Mario Vaz, Sebastien Viret, Jin Yuan Wu, Zijun Xu, Silvia Zorzetti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a flexible and scalable approach to address the challenges of charged particle track reconstruction in real-time event filters (Level-1 triggers) in collider physics experiments. The method described here is based on a full-mesh architecture for data distribution and relies on the Associative Memory approach to implement a pattern recognition algorithm that quickly identifies and organizes hits associated to trajectories of particles originating from particle collisions. We describe a successful implementation of a demonstration system composed of several innovative hardware and algorithmic elements. The implementation of a full-size system relies on the assumption that an Associative Memory device with the sufficient pattern density becomes available in the future, either through a dedicated ASIC or a modern FPGA. We demonstrate excellent performance in terms of track reconstruction efficiency, purity, momentum resolution, and processing time measured with data from a simulated LHC-like tracking detector.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberP12002
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • Data acquisition concepts
  • Online farms and online filtering
  • Trigger algorithms
  • Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics


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