Chemokines comprise several subfamilies of small proteins with conserved cysteine residues and common structural features. Chemokines interact with signaling receptors to elicit effects on cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Both CXC and CC subfamily chemokines promote bone formation developmentally and in response to hormonal and mechanical stimuli. Effects on homing of progenitor cells may be involved in effects on osteoblastogenesis. CXC and CC chemokines are also implicated in processes leading to osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, with promotion of the migration of mononuclear osteoclast precursor cells being an important action. Chemokines contribute to the bone loss resulting from arthritis, both through promoting inflammation and osteoclastogenesis and attenuating cartilage repair. Both the positive effects of chemokines on bone formation and the bone loss resulting from inflammatory reactions to wear particles are factors in the success or failure of implants. In primary tumors of bone as well as cancers metastasizing to bone, chemokines facilitate interactions between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment through effects on angiogenesis, tumor growth, and invasion. Development of therapeutic agents that could target deleterious effects of chemokines, including effects on bone, has been slow, although a number of compounds for various disease indications are currently being evaluated.
- Chemokine receptor
- Implant osseointegration
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine