Chemokines and cytotoxic effector molecules in rejection

Alan M. Krensky*, Carol Clayberger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Increased or de novo expression of chemokines and cytotoxic effector molecules is part of the immunologic constant of rejection and are central to the signature of broad activation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic cells. Although several chemokines are associated with rejection and provocative results have been obtained in animal models, no real breakthroughs have occurred in translating these findings to clinical transplantation. In contrast, the cytotoxic effector molecules, granulysin, granzymes and perforin have proven to be important biomarkers for rejection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationImmunologic Signatures of Rejection
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781441972194
ISBN (Print)9781441972187
StatePublished - 2011


  • Chemokine
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)
  • Granulysin
  • Granzymes
  • Natural killer (NK) cell
  • Perforin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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