Children with tourette syndrome in the United States: Parent-reported diagnosis, co-occurring disorders, severity, and influence of activities on tics

Sara Beth Wolicki*, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Benjamin Zablotsky, John T. Walkup, Douglas W. Woods, Jonathan W. Mink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Describe the diagnostic process for Tourette syndrome (TS) based on parent report, aswell as TS severity and associated impairment; the influence of common daily activities on tics; and thepresence of co-occurring mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children in the UnitedStates. Methods: Parent-report data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHDand Tourette Syndrome on 115 children ever diagnosed with TS were analyzed. Descriptive, unweightedanalyses included frequencies and percentages, and means and standard deviations. Fisher's exact test andt-tests were calculated to determine statistically significant differences. Results: The mean age that tics werefirst noticed was 6.3 years, and, on average, TS was diagnosed at 7.7 years. The time from initially noticing ticsto TS diagnosis averaged 1.7 years. The mean age when TS symptoms were most severe was 9.3 years. Ticseverity was associated with impaired child functioning but not tic noticeability. Almost 70% of parentsreported that fatigue and major transitions made their child's tics worse. Children with ever-diagnosed TShad a mean of 3.2 ever-diagnosed co-occurring mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders; a quarter(26.9%) had 5 or more co-occurring disorders. Discussion: In this sample of children with TS, the timeto diagnosis averaged less than 2 years from when tics were initially noticed. More severe TS was associated with greater functional impairment, and co-occurring disorders were common among childrenwith TS. This study provides insight into the current experiences of children with TS in the United Statesand their families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-414
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Volume40
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Children with tourette syndrome in the United States: Parent-reported diagnosis, co-occurring disorders, severity, and influence of activities on tics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this