Endoscopie endonasal approaches are increasingly applied to treat a variety of sinonasal, orbital and skull base pathologies. For the past two decades, two-dimensional (2D) endoscopic approaches have become more prevalent. With the advancement of endoscopic technology, three-dimensional (3D) endoscopes have emerged and augmented the spatial orientation of extracranial and intracranial anatomical structures. This article reviews the technical aspects and pertinent literature. Surgical decision making and indications for use of 3D endoscopes are also discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2013|
- Skull base.
ASJC Scopus subject areas