Cicero: A Declarative Grammar for Responsive Visualization

Hyeok Kim, Ryan Rossi, Fan Du, Eunyee Koh, Shunan Guo, Jessica Hullman, Jane Hoffswell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Designing responsive visualizations can be cast as applying transformations to a source view to render it suitable for a different screen size. However, designing responsive visualizations is often tedious as authors must manually apply and reason about candidate transformations. We present Cicero, a declarative grammar for concisely specifying responsive visualization transformations which paves the way for more intelligent responsive visualization authoring tools. Cicero's flexible specifier syntax allows authors to select visualization elements to transform, independent of the source view's structure. Cicero encodes a concise set of actions to encode a diverse set of transformations in both desktop-first and mobile-first design processes. Authors can ultimately reuse design-agnostic transformations across different visualizations. To demonstrate the utility of Cicero, we develop a compiler to an extended version of Vega-Lite, and provide principles for our compiler. We further discuss the incorporation of Cicero into responsive visualization authoring tools, such as a design recommender.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCHI 2022 - Proceedings of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9781450391573
StatePublished - Apr 29 2022
Event2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2022 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: Apr 30 2022May 5 2022

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings


Conference2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online


  • Visualization
  • grammar
  • responsive visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Software


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