This chapter focuses on basic circadian rhythm characteristics, including the sleep-wake and feeding-fasting rhythms, as well as circadian genetics as they pertain to neuroendocrine and endocrine rhythms. A prominent feature of the neuroendocrine system is its high degree of temporal organization. An immense variety of circadian rhythms has been observed in man. Human circadian rhythms have been characterized for blood constituents, innumerable physiological variables, as well as behavioral parameters, such as food intake, sleep, mood, vigilance and cognitive performance. There are several features of the interaction between sleep and circadian rhythmicity that appear to be fairly unique to the human species. Pituitary secretion of GH is stimulated by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibited by somatostatin. In addition, the acylated form of ghrelin, a peptide produced predominantly by the stomach, binds to the GH-secretagog receptor and is therefore another potent endogenous stimulus of GH secretion. A close temporal relationship has been evidenced between increased prolactin secretion and SW activity when sleep structure was characterized by power spectral analysis of the EEG.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Neuroendocrinology|
|Number of pages||35|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2012|
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