Classification and Management of Metopic Craniosynostosis

Sydney T. Yee, Jeffrey A. Fearon, Arun K. Gosain, Mary R. Timbang, Frank A. Papay, Gaby Doumit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: In the craniofacial surgery literature, there is a wide disparity of opinions regarding the management of nonsyndromic metopic synostosis. With the lack of level I evidence to support a particular regimen, we aimed to elucidate the current state of practice among craniofacial surgeons with the hope of establishing a standard of care. Methods: A survey was sent to 102 craniofacial surgeons. The survey featured 2 parts: clinical scenarios and questions regarding the following: primary indication for surgery, preference of timing, and choice of operative intervention for patients presenting with nonsyndromic isolated metopic synostosis. Surgeons were also queried regarding preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols. Results: The total response rate was 72% (73/102) for the clinical scenarios and 63% (64/102) for the complete survey. There was a large discrepancy when classifying and managing mild metopic synostosis, with between 16% and 35% of surgeons electing to operate on a mild case. All surgeons agreed to operate on moderate and severe cases. For 95% of respondents, skull deformity was the primary indication for treatment of craniosynostosis. Open surgical management was most commonly performed at 6 months (29%) of age. Open frontal orbital advancement was the most commonly performed procedure in mild (27%), moderate (77%), and severe (89%) cases. Endoscopic approaches were more likely to be used in milder cases by 19% of surgeons. Conclusion: Our survey demonstrates that there is a wide disparity of opinion among craniofacial surgeons regarding the diagnosis and management of mild nonsyndromic metopic synostosis. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic, level 5.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1812-1817
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Classification
  • Management
  • Metopic craniosynostosis
  • Survey
  • Trigonocephaly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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