ObjectiveTo compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with and without methamphetamine exposure.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with spontaneous, nontraumatic ICH over a 3-year period between January 2013 and December 2016. Demographics, clinical measures, and outcomes were compared between ICH patients with positive methamphetamine toxicology tests vs those with negative methamphetamine toxicology tests.ResultsMethamphetamine-positive ICH patients were younger than methamphetamine-negative ICH patients (52 vs 67 years, p < 0.001). Patients with methamphetamine-positive ICH had higher diastolic blood pressure (115 vs 101, p = 0.003), higher mean arterial pressure (144 vs 129, p = 0.01), longer lengths of hospital (18 vs 8 days, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (10 vs 5 days, p < 0.001), required more days of IV antihypertensive medications (5 vs 3 days, p = 0.02), and had more subcortical hemorrhages (63% vs 46%, p = 0.05). The methamphetamine-positive group had better premorbid modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores (p < 0.001) and a greater change in functional ability as measured by mRS at the time of hospital discharge (p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine use predicted both hospital length of stay (risk ratio [RR] 1.54, confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.70, p < 0.001) and ICU length of stay (RR 1.36, CI 1.18-1.56, p < 0.001), but did not predict poor outcome (mRS 4-6).ConclusionsMethamphetamine use is associated with earlier age at onset of ICH, longer hospital stays, and greater change in functional ability, but did not predict outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology