Clinical Course of Histologically Proven Multifocal Micronodular Pneumocyte Hyperplasia in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Case Series and Comparison with Lymphangiomyomatosis

Satoshi Konno*, Masahiko Shigemura, Takahiro Ogi, Kaoruko Shimizu, Masaru Suzuki, Kichizo Kaga, Yasuhiro Hida, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Masaharu Nishimura

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Background: Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) is a rare pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Because of its rarity, no previous study has described the detailed clinical course of this disease. Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the longitudinal clinical characteristics of subjects with MMPH. Methods: Nine patients with MMPH diagnosed at Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in computed tomography findings and pulmonary function were compared during the follow-up period. Serum levels of KL-6, surfactant protein (SP)-A, and SP-D were measured to clarify their potentials as blood biomarkers of the disease. Fourteen cases of lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) were also included to compare their clinical characteristics with those of subjects with MMPH. Results: Of the 9 patients, 7 were female and 2 were male. The median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range, 19-56), and all cases were diagnosed following incidental abnormal radiographic findings. During the follow-up, 1 patient died of lung cancer, but others were radiographically stable and had stable pulmonary function. Serum levels of SP-A in 5 patients (mean, 146.4 ng/mL) and SP-D in 6 patients (mean, 337.3 ng/mL) were elevated in subjects with MMPH, whereas KL-6 levels were within the reference range (mean, 230 U/mL) in all patients. Levels of SP-A and SP-D were significantly higher in subjects with MMPH than those with LAM (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Radiographic findings and pulmonary function were stable in all cases of MMPH. Serum SP-A and SP-D, but not KL-6, may be useful markers for suspicion of the presence of MMPH in patients with TSC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)310-316
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2018



  • Clinical course
  • DLCO
  • High-resolution computed tomography
  • KL-6
  • Lymphangiomyomatosis
  • Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia
  • Surfactant protein-A
  • Surfactant protein-D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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