Clinical features of mixed physiology of constriction and restriction: Echocardiographic characteristics and clinical outcome

Hirotsugu Yamada, Tomotsugu Tabata, Sukaina J. Jaffer, Jeanne K. Drinko, Susan E. Jasper, Michael S. Lauer, James D. Thomas, Allan L. Klein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Aims: An entity of patients with mixed physiology of constriction and restriction has been reported, however, the characteristics of these patients have not been well documented. We evaluated the clinical features and the outcome of these patients. Methods and results: Study subjects consisted of 38 patients (57 ± 14 years, 8 females, 30 males) who were diagnosed as having mixed physiology based on transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography, MRI (or CT), cardiac catheterization, endomyocardial biopsy and/or surgical findings. Prior radiation therapy was the most frequent (50%) cause of mixed physiology followed by coronary artery bypass graft without prior radiation (24%) and heart transplantation (8%). The respiratory variation of peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity by pulsed Doppler transesophageal echocardiography was 10.7% in patients with sinus rhythm and 18.1% in patients with atrial arrhythmia. Pericardial thickening was noted adjacent to the right-sided chambers in 19 patients, left-sided chambers in 10 patients, or both in 9 patients. All-cause 5-year mortality was 40% and unrelated to age, etiology, left ventricular systolic function and therapeutic course. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01) between the survival rates in patients with mixed physiology and in patients with pure constriction (n = 125). Conclusions: Due to the high mortality in this disease, discrimination of the entity from the patients with pure constriction is mandatory. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are helpful noninvasive techniques in the diagnosis and the understanding of the physiology of patients with mixed constriction and restriction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-194
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Echocardiography
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2007


  • Echocardiography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Pericarditis
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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