Clinical outcomes following implementation of a management bundle for esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula

on behalf of the Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background/Purpose: This study evaluated compliance with a multi-institutional quality improvement management protocol for Type-C esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF). Methods: Compliance and outcomes before and after implementation of a perioperative protocol bundle for infants undergoing Type-C EA/TEF repair were compared across 11 children's hospitals from 1/2016–1/2019. Bundle components included elimination of prosthetic material between tracheal and esophageal suture lines during repair, not leaving a transanastomotic tube at the conclusion of repair (NO-TUBE), obtaining an esophagram by postoperative-day-5, and discontinuing prophylactic antibiotics 24 h postoperatively. Results: One-hundred seventy patients were included, 40% pre-protocol and 60% post-protocol. Bundle compliance increased 2.5-fold pre- to post-protocol from 17.6% to 44.1% (p < 0.001). After stratifying by institutional compliance with all bundle components, 43.5% of patients were treated at low-compliance centers (< 20%), 43% at medium-compliance centers (20–80%), and 13.5% at high-compliance centers (> 80%). Rates of esophageal leak, anastomotic stricture, and time to full feeds did not differ between pre- and post-protocol cohorts, though there was an inverse correlation between NO-TUBE compliance and stricture rate over time (ρ = − 0.75, p = 0.029). Conclusions: Compliance with our multi-institutional management protocol increased 2.5-fold over the study period without compromising safety or time to feeds and does not support the use of transanastomotic tubes. Level of Evidence: Level II. Type of Study: Treatment Study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-54
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Esophageal atresia
  • Quality improvement
  • Tracheoesophageal fistula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Surgery


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