Clinical use of profiled hemodialysis

Luigi Colì*, Mario Bonomini, Gaetano La Manna, Vittorio Dalmastri, Mauro Ursino, Peter T Ivanovich, Vittorio Bonomini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The new population on dialysis today consists mainly of high risk patients (the elderly, diabetics, etc.) with high cardiovascular scores, and such vascular pathology is the most important predisposing factor for the occurrence of a frequent intradialytic clinical complication, vascular instability syndrome, which covers a range of clinical problems. Recently a new dialysis technique, profiled hemodialysis (PHD), has been set up and proposed for routine use. PHD consists of the clinical use of preestablished individual dialysis profiles aimed at antagonizing the changes in intradialytic plasma osmolarity by continuous modulation of dialysate sodium concentration throughout the whole extracorporeal session. In particular, PHD aims at reducing the fall of plasma osmolarity in the first half of the session (when it is higher) by reducing the sodium removal rate through increasing its dialysate concentration while taking into account the desired individual sodium balance to be reached at the end of the session. In this work, we report clinical experience with PHD compared to standard hemodialysis with constant sodium dialysate (SHD) in terms of its efficacy to maintain a more stable intradialytic blood volume (BV) and more stable hemodynamics. The PHD used in this work has been implemented by a mathematical model for computing the individual dialysate sodium profile which we have recently validated (Ursino M, Coli L, La Manna G, Grilli Cicilioni M, Dalmastri V, Guidicissi A, Masotti P,: Avanzolini G, Stefani S, Bonomini V. A simple mathematical model of intradialytic sodium kinetics: 'in vivo' validation during hemodialysis with constant or variable sodium. Int J Artif Organs 1996; 19:393-403.). Eleven uremic patients affected by hypotension at the beginning of dialysis treatment were studied. Each patient first underwent an SHD treatment and 1 week later a PHD treatment. The 2 extracorporeal sessions (one on SHD and the other on PHD) were performed in each individual patient under identical operative conditions including the sodium mass removal by the end of the session and the ultrafiltration rate. The crit line and Doppler echocardiography were used to determine BV, cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) throughout the sessions. The mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were simultaneously monitored. PHD was associated with a more stable intradialytic BV and more stable hemodynamics compared to SHD. The higher stability of BV and cardiac function (in terms of SV and CO maintenance) which was obtained above all in the first half of the PHD session was associated with a higher stability of the MBP and the HR. This resulted in an enhancement in cardiovascular tolerance to ultrafiltration throughout the session in all tested patients. In contrast, SHD in the same patients was characterized by early significant changes in BV and cardiovascular parameters resulting in a significant decrease of the MBP and a significant increase of the HR throughout the session and also 1 h after the end of dialysis. Our results indicate that PHD may represent an efficient approach for the treatment of patients suffering from intradialytic vascular instability. If long-term clinical practice confirms the efficacy of PHD in controlling dialysis intolerance symptoms, it will have great scope as a routine procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)724-730
Number of pages7
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 28 1998


  • Cardiovascular instability
  • Hemodialysis
  • Profiled hemodialysis
  • Sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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