Cobot implementation of virtual paths and 3-D virtual surfaces

Carl A. Moore*, Michael A. Peshkin, J. Edward Colgate

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Cobots are devices for human/robot interaction, in which axes of motion are coupled to one another by computer-controlled continuously variable transmissions rather than individually driven by servomotors. We have recently built a cobot with a three-dimensional workspace and a 3-revolute parallelogram-type mechanism. Here we present control methods for the display of virtual surfaces and for free mode in which the cobot end-point moves as if it were unconstrained. We provide experimental results on the performance of the free, virtual path, and virtual surface controllers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)347-351
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2003


  • Cobot, haptics
  • Human/robot collaboration
  • Intelligent assist device (IAD)
  • Nonholonomic
  • Virtual constraint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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