Background: Little is known on the clinical manifestations of coconut allergy. Our knowledge to date is mainly based on case reports. Objective: To characterize the allergic reactions to coconut and suggest diagnostic cutoffs for specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and skin prick testing (SPT) to predict clinically reactive coconut allergy. Methods: Methods include retrospective chart review at an urban tertiary care center of patients with positive testing result for coconut. Probability curves were computed by logistic regression for SPT and coconut sIgE. Results: Of 275 records reviewed, 69 patients reported coconut reactions and 206 were sensitized only or nonallergic. The reactions occurred with breastfeeding (n = 2), contact (n = 10), or oral ingestion (n = 57). Approximately 50% of oral ingestion reactions were associated with mild/moderate anaphylaxis. Clinical reactivity vs sensitization was more common in topical coconut users (2-fold) (P = .02). Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward more coconut allergy vs sensitization in Asian and African American patients. The probability of allergy with positive SPT result was approximately 50% and with sIgE was approximately 60%. At an SPT of 9 mm wheal or sIgE of 58 kU of allergen/L, there is a 95% probability of reaction. Cosensitization with tree nuts, legumes, and seeds was common. Macadamia nut had the strongest correlation with coconut (r = 0.81, P < .001, n = 101). Conclusion: Although the rate of reactivity to coconut in sensitized individuals is low, half of the reactions from consumption met the criteria for anaphylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of the spectrum of reactions and diagnostic use of sIgE and SPT.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine