Cognitive neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder

James Swanson*, F. Xavier Castellanos, Michael Andrew Murias, Gerald LaHoste, James Kennedy

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    225 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Currently, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) are made on the basis of phenomenology, but information is accumulating from the neurosciences about the biological bases of these disorders. Recent studies addressing the neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular biology of ADHD/HKD document abnormalities in well-defined neuroanatomical networks and neurochemical pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that some regions of the frontal lobes (anterior superior and inferior) and basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) are about 10% smaller in ADHD groups than in control groups of children, and molecular genetic studies have shown that diagnosis of ADHD is associated with polymorphisms in some dopamine genes (the dopamine D4 receptor gene and the dopamine transporter gene).

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)263-271
    Number of pages9
    JournalCurrent opinion in neurobiology
    Volume8
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 1998

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Neuroscience(all)

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