Collaborative involvement of primary and secondary caregivers: Associations with youths diabetes outcomes

Tim Wysocki*, Tonja R. Nansel, Grayson N. Holmbeck, Rusan Chen, Lori Laffel, Barbara J. Anderson, Jill Weissberg-Benchell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Scopus citations


ObjectiveCollaboration between youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their adult caregivers may be central to effective management of T1D. This article includes analysis of cross-sectional associations between T1D outcomes (adherence, glycemic control, quality of life, family conflict, depression, and self-efficacy) and scores on the Collaborative Parent Involvement (CPI) Scale obtained from 309 youths with T1D about their primary and secondary caregivers.MethodsMANCOVA, controlling for age, evaluated associations of diabetes outcomes with youths' CPI scores for each caregiver.ResultsDiabetes outcomes were poor when both caregivers obtained CPI scores below the median. Diabetes outcomes were more strongly associated with CPI scores of primary, rather than secondary, caregivers. CPI scores at or above the median among primary caregivers were associated with more favorable status on multiple youth outcomes. When both caregivers obtained CPI scores at or above the median, children had significantly lower HbA1C and parents retained more responsibility for diabetes care.ConclusionsHigher collaborative involvement, particularly among primary caregivers, was associated with favorable status along a variety of diabetes outcomes. Longitudinal studies could confirm if youthparent collaboration is a justifiable intervention target.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-881
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Adherence
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic control
  • Parent involvement
  • Responsibility
  • Social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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