Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells are usually obtained from bone marrow, cord blood, or peripheral blood and are used to study hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. They have the capacity to differentiate into lymphoid and myeloid lineages. The colony forming cell (CFC) assay is used to study the proliferation and differentiation pattern of hematopoietic progenitors by their ability to form colonies in a semisolid medium. The number and the morphology of the colonies formed by a fixed number of input cells provide preliminary information about the ability of progenitors to differentiate and proliferate. Cells can be harvested from individual colonies or from the whole plate to further assess their numbers and differentiation states using flow cytometry and morphologic evaluation of Giemsa-stained slides. This assay is useful for assessing myeloid but not lymphoid differentiation. The term myeloid in this context is used in its wider sense to encompass granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. We have used this assay to assess the effects of oncogenes on the differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells derived from peripheral blood. For this purpose cells are transduced with either control retroviral construct or a construct expressing the oncogene of interest, in this case NUP98-HOXA9. We employ a commonly used retroviral vector, MSCV-IRES-GFP, that expresses a bicistronic mRNA that produces the gene of interest and a GFP marker. Cells are pre-activated by growing in the presence of cytokines for two days prior to retroviral transduction. After another two days, GFP+ cells are isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and mixed with a methylcellulose-containing semisolid medium supplemented with cytokines and incubated till colonies appear on the surface, typically 14 days. The number and morphology of the colonies are documented. Cells are then removed from the plates, washed, counted, and subjected to flow cytometry and morphologic examination. Flow cytometry with antibodies specific to the cell surface markers expressed during hematopoiesis provides information about lineage and maturation stage. Morphological studies of individual cells under a microscope after Wright- Giemsa staining provide further information with regard to lineage and maturation. Comparison of cells transduced with control empty vector to those transduced with an oncogene reveals the effects of the oncogene on hematopoietic differentiation.
- CFC assay
- Flow cytometry
- Hematopoietic progenitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)