Color processing

Gregory William Schwartz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Color plays a crucial role in visual processing for many animals, including humans. As wavelength is an elementary property of light, color processing begins at the first stage of vision with the relative spectral sensitivities of different photoreceptor types. Subsequent retinal processing creates the "opponent" channels that drive color perception and behavior. This chapter describes the retinal circuits for processing color information in vertebrates. A comparative approach is used throughout, as specializations in color-processing circuits in different species reveal both the diversity of neural mechanisms in nature and the different ecological value of color information to different animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRetinal Computation
Number of pages30
ISBN (Print)9780128198964
StatePublished - Aug 17 2021


  • Bird
  • Blue-yellow
  • Color
  • Cones
  • Dichromatic
  • Fovea
  • Goldfish
  • Horizontal cells (HCs)
  • L cones
  • Light
  • M cones
  • Midget RGCs
  • Mouse
  • Neural mechanisms
  • Opponency
  • Red-green
  • Regional specialization
  • Regionalization
  • Reptile
  • S cones
  • Strike zone
  • Tetrachromatic
  • Trichromatic
  • Vision
  • Visual processing
  • Zebrafish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Neuroscience


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