Combination cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy for locally advanced unresectable or medically unfit bladder cancer cases: A southwest oncology group study

Maha H A Hussain, Tracy R. Glass*, Jeffrey Forman, Wael Sakr, David C. Smith, Muhyi Al-Sarraf, Jeffrey Jones, Stanley P. Balcerzak, E. David Crawford, H. Barton Grossman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Patients with locally advanced bladder cancer or who are not medically fit for surgery are a therapeutic dilemma. Radiotherapy with or without single agent cisplatin has been the major therapeutic modality. A phase II Southwest Oncology Group trial investigated the efficacy and feasibility of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and radiation in this patient subset. Materials and Methods: Eligible patients had muscle invasive bladder cancer (clinical stages T2-T4) with nodal involvement at or below the level of bifurcation of the iliac vessels, were medically or surgically inoperable, or refused cystectomy. Patients underwent pretreatment cystoscopy and detailed tumor mapping, and were treated with 75 mg./m.2 cisplatin on day 1 and 1 gm./m.2 daily, 5-fluorouracil on days 1 to 4 and definitive radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was repeated every 28 days, twice during and twice after radiation. Results: From October 1993 to April 1998, 60 patients were enrolled in study. Of the 56 eligible patients 34% had unresectable tumors, 21% were not medically fit for surgery and 45% refused cystectomy. Overall, 68% of the patients had clinical T3 tumors or greater and 22% had nodal metastasis. Treatment was completed as planned in 32 of 56 (57%) patients. The most frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicities were neutropenia, stomatitis or mucositis, diarrhea, neuropathy and nausea. There were 53 patients who were evaluable for response, although response was not determined for 18. The overall response rate was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37 to 65) based on intent to treat with a complete response rate of 49% (95% CI 35 to 63). Estimated median survival of the 56 patients was 27 months (95% CI 21 to 40 months) with an overall 5-year survival of 32%. The 5-year survival of the 25 patients who refused surgery was 45%. Conclusions: Concurrent 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and radiation therapy is feasible. Despite a promising complete response rate, the overall 5-year survival suggests the need for more effective systemic therapy. The 5-year survival of patients who refused cystectomy suggests that this combined modality may provide another alternative to cystectomy for these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-61
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume165
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Drug therapy
  • Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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