Discarded tissues, like human amniotic membranes and adipose tissue, were investigated for the application of Decellularized Human Amniotic Membrane (DAM) as a viable scaffold for transplantation of Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in bone regeneration of non-healing calvarial defects in rats. Amniotic membrane was decellularized to provide a scaffold for male Wistar rats ASCs expansion and transplantation. ASCs osteoinduction in vitro promoted the deposition of a mineralized bone-like matrix by ASCs, as calcified globular accretions associated with the cells on the DAM surface and inside the collagenous matrix. Non-healing calvarial defects on male Wistar rats were randomly divided in control without treatment, treatment with four layers of DAM, or four layers of DAM associated with ASCs. After 12 weeks, tissue blocks were examined by micro-computed tomography and histology. DAM promoted osteoconduction by increasing the collagenous matrix on both DAM treatments. DAM with ASCs stimulated bone deposition, demonstrated by a higher percentage of bone volume and trabecular bone number, compared to control. Besides the osteogenic capacity in vitro, ASCs stimulated the healing of calvarial defects with significant DAM graft incorporation concomitant with higher host bone deposition. The enhanced in vivo bone regeneration by undifferentiated ASCs loaded onto DAM confirmed the potential of an easily collected autologous cell source associated with a broadly available collagenous matrix in tissue engineering.
- Adipose stem cells
- Bone tissue engineering
- Human amniotic membrane
- Stem cell transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine